**Establish mathematics goals to focus learning.**Effective teaching of mathematics establishes clear goals for the mathematics that students are learning, situates goals within learning progressions, and uses the goals to guide instructional decisions.**Implement tasks that promote reasoning and problem solving.**Effective teaching of mathematics engages students in solving and discussing tasks that promote mathematical reasoning and problem solving and allow multiple entry points and varied solution strategies.**Use and connect mathematical representations.**Effective teaching of mathematics engages students in making connections among mathematical representations to deepen understanding of mathematics concepts and procedures and as tools for problem solving.**Facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse.**Effective teaching of mathematics facilitates discourse among students to build shared understanding of mathematical ideas by analyzing and comparing student approaches and arguments.**Pose purposeful questions.**Effective teaching of mathematics uses purposeful questions to assess and advance students' reasoning and sense making about important mathematical ideas and relationships.**Build procedural fluency from conceptual understanding.**Effective teaching of mathematics builds fluency with procedures on a foundation of conceptual understanding so that students, over time, become skillful in using proecedures flexibly as they solve contextual and mathematical problems.**Support productive struggle in learning mathematics.**Effective teaching of mathematics consistently provides students, individually and collectively, wit opportunities and supports to engage in productive struggle as they grapple with mathematical ideas and relationships.**Elicit and use evidence of student thinking.**Effective teaching of mathematics uses evidence of student thinking to assess progress toward mathematical understanding and to adjust instruction continually in ways that support and extend learning.

--*Principles to Actions Ensuring Mathematical Success for All, *National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2014